BapJw

 
 
ssZh\nthinX {Kw {]mamWnI {K٧ ]mccy cN\mcq]
]gb \nba{K٧ Ncn{X]cw {]hN\]camb {K٧
{]t_m[\]cw PohZmbIamb hN\w    
 
 
 
 
BapJw
 
     
 

am\hPohnXsbpw Ncn{Xsbpw ss__nt]mse kzm[o\n IrXnI thsdbn. ssZhns Abamb ImcpWynsbpw ANeamb hnizkvXXbpsSbpw AXypZmcamb kvt\lnsbpw Icfn kwhlns a\pjys \nXyZo]vXamb Nn{Xw ss__nfn A\mhcWw sNpp. a\pjyNcn{Xw GIetymapJambn hnImkw {]m]npXv ss__nfn ImWmw. ssZhlnXn\p Xss kanpXneqsS a\pjy t\Sp kzmX{ynsbpw kam[m\nsbpw sFizcynsbpw \nd kucyamWv ChnsS shfnsSpXv.

A\amb ImcpWym ssZhw krjvSn \Sn. BZnbn AhnSpv BImihpw `qanbpw krjvSnp. kzw cq]n a\pjy\p Paw \In. Fm, krjvSnbpsS aIpSamb a\pjy ssZhstmse BImsa {]tem`\n\p hgn AhnSps lnXn\p hncpambn {]hnp. AtXmsS temIn Xna ISpIqSn. ]m]n IpSpnb a\pjys\ cnm IcpWmab\mb ssZhw \nbnp. AXn\pthnbmWv AhnSpv A{_mls XncsSpXv. Ahs kXnbneqsS kIe P\XIsfbpw Xntev ASpnpIsbXmbncpp AhnSps ]Xn(DXv] 22,18). ssZh]p{X\pw A{_mlns kXnbpamb tbiphneqsSbmWv Cu ]Xn ]qnbmIpXv. tbiphn ^eWnbp cbpsS Ncn{XamWv ss__nfns CXnhrw.

ss__nfn\p cp `mKfpv ]gb \nbahpw ]pXnb \nbahpw. A{_mln \np PawsIm C{ktbP\ns Ncn{XamWv ]gb\nbaw. tbiphns PohnXhpw acWhpw alXzoIcWhpw ASp "{InkvXpkw`h"hpw tbiphn \nv Bcw`np ]pXnb C{ktbemb k`bpsS Ncn{Xhpw ]pXnb \nban DsSpp. cNcn{XnstI{_nphmb{InkvXphneqsS am\hkaqlnskqWhntamN\w km[nXambn.

 
     
 
ssZh\nthinX {Kw
 
     
 
ssZhmmhns {]tNmZ\mepw \nccklmbmepw cNnsXmbXpsImv ss__n ssZh\nthinXamWv. ss__n ssZhhN\amWv a\pjycbvpthn ssZhw \Ip ktiw. CXp sXpIqSmsXbpw ]qWambpw FgpXm ssZhw Nne hynIsf sXcsSpv Ahp {]tNmZ\hpw {]Imihpw \In. Fm, shdpw bm{nIamb D]IcWf Ah. atXp {KImhns\bpwt]mse Chcpw eIme kmlNcyfpsS kzm[o\n\p hnt[bcmbncpp. XfpsS kmwkvImcnIhpw kmaqlyhpw kmlnXy]chpamb khntijXI ]cncnpsImv AhbneqsS ssZhns ktiw sXpIqSmsX tcJsSppXn\v Ahp hcw e`np. As\ ssZhhN\w a\pjys hmpIfn enJnXambn.

ssZhsbpw a\pjycsbbpw kw_n Imcyfn ss__n {]amZclnXamWv. imkv{Xw {]Zm\wsNp ]pXnb ]pXnb AdnhpIfpsS shfnn ss__nfn Nne ]cmaifpsSbpw hnhcfpsSbpw {]knsbn kwibw P\ntmw. `uXnINcn{Xhpw \ncoW]coWġp hnt[bamb imkv{XkXyfpw ]TnnpIb ss__nfns eyw. AXXp Imefn \nehnencp {]]kev]fpsSbpw cN\mcq]fpsSbpw klmbtmsS cmNcn{Xw AhXcnnpIbpw cmamKw \ntZinpIbpw am{XamWv ss__n sNpXv.
 
     
 
{]mamWnI {K٧
 
     
  ssZhZamb {]t_m[\m[nImcw D]tbmKnv hnizmknIfpsS kaqln\p t\XrXzw \Iph {]mamWnIambn AwKoIcnp {Ks "Imt\m\nI' {Ksap hnfnpp. {In.h.80100 \S bmav\nbktf\nhmWv blqZt\Xmm AhcpsS Imt\m\nI{K٧ \nWbnXv. sl{_mb`mjbnepmbncp ss__n {K٧ am{Xta {]mamWnIambn Ah kzoIcnpq. {Kov Acamb`mjIfnepXpw ]e blqZkaqlfpw ss__nfns `mKambn kzoIcnncpXpamb ap {K٧ Ah A{]mWnIambn Xn. Itmen HgnsIbp ss{IkvXhkaql blqZ\ne]mSmWv kzoIcnncnpXv.

blqZcpsS Imt\m\nI {K٧ġp ]pdta "Dc Imt\m\nI{K٧' (Deutero Canonical) Fv AdnbsSp tXm_nXv, bqZnv, PvRm\w, {]`mjI, _mdqv, 1,2 a_mb, Zm\ntbens Nne `mK (3, 2490; 1314), FkvtX(1116) FnhIqSn {]mamWnIambn s{Xtmkv kq\ltZmkv XopI¸np (De Canonicis Scripturis, 1546). As\ ]gb \nban \m¸nbpw ]pXnb\nban Ccp]ntbgpw {K٧ Imt\m\nIambn Itmenmk` AwKoIcnp. sPsdanbmbpsS `mKambn IcpXntm hnem] ]n¡mev Hcp hyXykvX{Kambn Fsp. As\ ss__nfn sams Fgp]naqp {K٧ Dv.
 
     
 
]mccy cN\mcq]
 
 
 
  _rlmb Cu {Kkamlmcw Bbncntesd hjwsImmWv ({In. ap.1200{In.h.100) hncNnXambXv. Chbn Gdnb]pw BZyw hmNnI]mccyfmbn kaqln ]cncnspt]mp. Cu ]mccy IqnbnWnbmWv ]noSv {K٧ cNnsXv. DZmlcWn\v ]{Knbn bmlvhnv (J) Ftemlnv (E) {]oven (P) sUhpt{SmWanv (D) Fns\ {][m\ambpw \mep ]mccyfpsS ka\zbw \SXmbn kqN\Ifpv. Htc kw`hspdnv hyXykvX hnhc ImWpXv hnhn[ ]mccy aqeamWv. hnhn[ ImeLfn cq]wsIm Cu {K٧fn ]e cN\mcq] ZriyamWv hnizmkns shfnnep Ncn{XmJym\w, CXnlmkcq]amb hnhcW, IYI, D]aI, KoX, ]gsmpI, {]m\I XpSnbh. {KImcs Dtiyhpw AXneqsS ss__nfns ktihpw {KlnpXn\v sshhn[yam Cu cN\mcq] thXncndnbpI BhiyamWv. am\pjnIam[yafneqsSbmWv ssZhhN\w \IsncnpXv. am[yafpsS A]cym]vXX ssZhhN\ns AhyXmbn IcpXcpXv. ssZhmhnjvIcWns Ncn{Xnepw hf ZriyamWv.  
     
 
]gb \nba{K٧
 
     
  blqZ ]mccya\pkcnv ]gb\nba{K٧sf \nbaw (tXmd) {]hmNIm (\_nbnw) enJnX (Ivq_nw) Fns\ aqmbn Xncnmdpv. DXv]napX \nbamh\whscbp Ap {K٧fmWv \nbaw. tPmjzm, \ymbm[n]am, kmaphensbpw cmPmmcpsSbpw ]pkvXI Fnh apIme{]hmNIm Ft]cnepw {]hmNIhn`mKnsSpp. sl{_mbIm\ A\pkcnv tijnp ]Xns\mp {K٧fmWv "enJnX' F t]cnednbsSpXv. CXnepsSm Imt\m\nI{K٧IqSn IWnseSpv ss{IkvXh ]gb\nba{K٧sf Ncn{X]cw, {]hN\]cw, {]t_m[\]cw Fp s]mXpth aqmbn Xncnpp. {K٧fpsS s]mXphmb kz`mhhpw ]T\n\p kuIcyhpw IWnseSpp Hcp hn`P\w am{XamWnXv. Ncn{Xhpw {]hN\hpw {]t_m[\hpw GpdnepItfmsSbmsWnepw, an {K٧fnepw ZriyamsWp ]dpsIms.  
     
 
Ncn{X]cw
 
     
  ]{KnsbdnbsSp DXv]n, ]pdmSv, tehy, kwJy, \nbamh\w Fnhbpw tPmjz, \ymbm[n], dqv, 1,2 kmaph, 1,2 cmPmm, 1,2 Zn\hrm, F{km, s\slanb, tXm_nXv, bqZnv, FkvtX, 1,2 a_mb FnhbpamWv Ncn{X]camb {K٧fmbn IWmpXv. ]{Knv AXn¯s Hcp ]qWXbpv. DXv]nbpsS BZys ]Xns\mv A[ymb ss__nfnse cmIcNcn{Xn\v Hcp BapJambn IWmmhpXmWv. temIkrjvSn, a\pjys DZv`hw, cmIc]Xn BhiyIamno XnabpsS Bhn`mhw XpSnbhbpsS hnhcWaSp ]{Kn Ncn{X]qhLs {]Xn]mZnpp. cmIc]XnbpsS hyamb Bcw`wIpdnp A{_mlns XncsSppapX C{kmtba CuPn]vXnsepXphscbp ]qh]nXmmcpsS Ncn{XamWv ]{papX AXphscbp A[ymbfn {]Xn]mZnpXv. C{kmtbP\s CuPn]vXn\nv AXv`pXmhlambn tamNnnv A{_mltmSp hmKvZm\wsNbvXncp tZins IhmSnsenpXphscbp kw`h]ccIfmWv ap \mep {K٧fn ImWpXv. tPmjzmbpsS t\XrXzn hmKvZ`qanbn {]thinXpapX C{ktbP\w _m_ntem {]hmknemIpXphscbp Ncn{Xns BJym\amWv tPmjzapX Zn\hrmhscbp {K٧. {]hmkn \np XncnphXpapX a_mbhnhwhscbp hrmfmWv tijnp {K٧fn {]Xn]mZnncnpXv.

Ncn{X]camb {K٧fnse "Ncn{X"sn hyamb Hcp ImgvNmSv BhiyamWv. kw`hfpsS Imem\pKXhpw bYmXYhpamb hnhcWsaXns\m C{kmtbens ssZhm\p`hnsbpw cmIc ]Xnsbpdnp hoWnsbpw shfnnep Ncn{Xm]{KY\amWv Cu {KٯnepXv. ssZhw C{ktbens\ XncsSpv Ahcpambn DSSnsNbvXv Ahsc Xs kzw P\amn. Ah AhnSps ]cnXyPnv A\ytZhamcpsS ]ndsIt]mbn Xnabn apgpIn. inbmbn AhnSpv Ahsc i{XpIcfnte]np. Ah A\pX]ntm AhnSpv Ahsc cnv ]qhnXnbnemn. AhnizkvXX in c Cu {IanemWv C{kmtbens Ncn{Xw apgph hn`mh\w sNbvXncnpXv. ap P\XIfpsS kmao]yw, hn{Klmcm[\bpw ap ZpcmNmcfpw hnfnphcpn P\s kXyssZhn\np hyXnNennpw. c XfpsS kzsa C{kmtbens AhImihmZhpw ap P\XItfmSp i{XpXmat\m`mhhpw Cu ]men thWw a\kvknemm. Npcpn Ncn{Xw cmNcn{XambnmWv AhXcnnncnpXv.
 
     
 
{]hN\]camb {K٧
 
     
 

Gim, sPsdanb, Fskntb, Zm\ntb Fo henb {]hmNIamcpw ]{p sNdnb {]hmNIamcpw, hnem], _mdqv Fnhbpw BWv {]hN\]camb {K٧. Fmw \qmns Dcm[wapX  Amw\qmns ]qhm[whscbmWv {]hmNImcpsS Imeambn s]mXpth ]cnKWnsSpXv. Btamkpw tlmknbmbpw DccmPyamb C{kmtben {]kwKnp. aphscmw bqZmbnemWv {]hnncpXv. kzwt]cn ]pkvXIfnm [mcmfw {]hmNIamcpw C{kmtben Dmbncpp. {]hmNIam s]mXpth FgppImcmbncpn. ]e Ahkcfnembn Ah {]tLmjn hkvXpXI injyamcmWv tiJcnv {Kcq]nemnbXv. {]hmNIamsc henbhscpw sNdnbhscpw XncnncnpXv AhcpsS t]cnep {K٧fpsS hensdps Bkv]Zamn am{XamWv.

cmPmamcpsS Imev C{kmtben\v _mlyi{Xpfn\np `ojWnIġv AdpXnbpmbn; cmPyv kZvkarnbpapmbn; tI{oIrXamb Bcm[\bpw kwm]nXambn. Fm CXv ssZhtmSp hnizkvXX hfpXn\p]Icw AXns\ sISppIbmWv sNbvXXv. cmPmhpw cmPmhns XWen hfph Hcp khn`mKhpw av C{kmtb ktlmZcsf NqjWw sNm XpSn. A\yP\XIfpsS tZhamcpw BNmcfpw kmh[m\w C{kmtb¡mscbpw kzm[o\np. Ah hn{Klmcm[\bnepw A[manIXbnepw apgpIn. C{kmtbense Bcm[\mhn[nIfpw Im]Synsbpw NqjWnsbpw am[yafmbn amdn. Cs\ Imhns\ adp {]hnm apXnhsc AhnSps ktiw Adnbnm\pw XncnpsImphcm\pw \nbpcmbhcmWv {]hmNIam. C{kmtbense `uXnIt\XrXzn\p kamcamb Hcp B[ymnI t\XrXzamWv {]hmNIam \InbncpXv.

Imhns hmfmWv {]hmNIam. AhnSps ZrjvSnbneqsS Ncn{Xs hon Ah P\s ka{Kamb ]cnh\n\v Blzm\w sNbvXp. kaqln \SamSnb hn{Klmcm[\bpw I]S`nbpw A\oXnbpw AhcpsS \ninX hnai\n\ncbmbn. ]m]nsæn inbpmIpsap ssZhw iamb XmoXp \In. ]mm]ntep \bnm\mbn innp ssZhw am\hIpens cI\pamWv. AhnSpv \Imt]mIp csbpdnpw Abbvmt]mIp cIs\pdnpap hmKvZm\ Fm {]hN\{K٧fnepw ImWmw. C{kmtbens Cuizcmht_m[s kv^pSw sNbvXXv {]hmNIamcmWv. \oXnam\pw ImcpWyaqnbpamb Imhns bYmYNn{Xw hcpImn ssZhlnXn\\pkrXamb PohnXw \bnm P\s Blzm\w sNpIbmbncpp {]hmNIam.

\nnXmn {]hN\{K٧fsænepw hnem]fpw _mdqpw {]hN\]cambmWv ]ccmKXambn IWmpXv. hnem] PsdanbmbpsS `mKambn BZyw IcpXntmp. Psdanb {]hNnncpXpt]mse cmPyhpw hnip \Kchpw \new]Xnp. \Kcnsbpw tZhmebnsbpw \jvSinjvSfpw P\ns ZpxnXnbpw Iv lrZbws\mv DZvKan hnem]fmWv Ah. Cv AXns\ Hcp hyXykvX{Kambn IWmpp. _mdqv PsdanbmbpsS injy\mbncpp. {]hmknIfpsS Hcp Gp]dn, hnPvRm\spdnv Hcp kvXpXnKoXw, Pdpkseans\ BizknnpsImpff KoX, hn{Klmcm[\bpsS auVyw XpdpImnsmp PsdanbmbpsS Hcp Iv FnhbpsS Hcp kamlmcamWv _mdqv.

 
     
 
{]t_m[\]cw
 
     
  tPm_v, ko\, kp`mjnX, k`m{]kwKI, DaKoXw, m\w, {]`mjI Fo {K٧fmWv {]t_m[\]cw Fp IWmpXv. . Chsbmw Htc kz`mhaphb. a\pjys ASnm\]camb Nne {]iv\fpsS Npcpfgnhv, Ahbvv Dcw ImWm\p Xo{hbXv\w ChbmWv tPm_v, k`m{]kwKI Fo {K٧fnepXv. ko\ Bcm[\mXen cq]wsIm KoXfmWv. khm[n]\mb ssZhns apn kvXpXnbpw IrXXbpw AnpIbpw ]m]ġp tamN\hpw hn]ZvLfn klmbhpw bmNnpIbpw sNp a\pjys aXmXvaIhnImcfmWv ko\fn {]Xn^enpXv. ]cnipamb {]Wb_ԯns `mjbn ssZhhpw a\pjycpambp _ԯn\v DWhp \Im\p {iaamWv DaKoXw. kp`mjnX, PvRm\w, {]`mjI Fnh a\pjyPohnXns hnhn[mwifn [manINntbmSpw ]IzXtbmSpwIqsS hym]cnm\mhiyamb DġmgvN \Ip NnmiIefpsS kamlmcfmWv. ]ckv]c_ansöp tXmntbmsanepw Cu NnmiIeġp ]nn hyamb Hcp PohnXZi\hpw Bgtadnb A\p`hkpw ZriyamWv.

ko\fnepw PvRm\w, {]`mjI FnhbpsS Nne `mKfnepsamgnsI, {]t_m[\{K٧fn C{kmtbNcn{Xnstbm kmaqlnIPohnXnstbm kv]\ A[nIw A\p`hsSpn. kaqltm hynIġmWv Chbn DusImSppXv. ka{Kamb hynXzns hnImkn\pw ]qWXbvpw DXIp amK\ntZifmWv Cu {K٧fn apJyambn {]Xn]mZnpXv. CXpsImpXsbmWv "{]t_m[\]cw' F hntijWw Chbvsmw tNcpXv. Cu {]t_m[\]mccyw C{kmtben am{Xa \nehnencpXv. CuPn]vXnepw saksmmanbmbnepw ap ]e kwkvImcfnepw Ccw kamlmc DmbncpXmbn hyamb sXfnhpI Cp e`yamWv. ChbpsS kzm[o\w Ipsdsbnepw C{kmtbens {]t_m[\]mccyfn \ngenppv.

ssZhw Xs A\amb PvRm\m {]]s krjvSnpIbpw \nb{npIbpw ]cn]menpIbpw sNpp. krjvShkvXpfn HfnpInSp ssZhnIPvRm\sbpw ssZhnI ]Xnsbbpw Adnv Ahbv\pkcnv kzPohnXw IcpnSnnph\mWv PvRm\n. CsXmpw KWyammsX A[aXmXv]cyġ\pkcnv Pohnph t`mj\mWv. PvRm\nbpsS amKw cbntepw sFizcyntepw \bnptm t`mj inbpw ZpcnXhpw hcpnhbvpw. PvRm\nsb \oXnams\pw ssZh`IvXs\pw hnfnmw. t`mj ZpjvSsbpw A[anbpsSbpw ]cymbamWv. ssZhhnizmkhpw [manIt_m[hpamWv a\pjy_ԧfpsS ASnm\LSIw kzw hym]mcsfbpw CXc hynIfpambp _ԧsfbpw \nb{np aqeyt_m[w Chbn\nmWv apfsbSppXv.
 
     
 
PohZmbIamb hN\w
 
     
 

tbip ssZh]p{X\mb {InkvXp BsWp \n hnizknpXn\pw As\ hnizknpI\nanw Ahs \man \nġp Poh DmIpXn\pwthnbmWv Xm kphntijw cNnsX tbmlms hmpI (20, 31) ss__nfns\pdnp s]mXpthbpw D]tbmKnmhpXmWv. ssZhhN\w PohnZmbIamWv. AXp a\pjys ]mZġp hnfpw ]mXbn {]ImihpamWv (ko.119,105). ssZhw ImWnpXcp ]mXbn Ncnph, AhnSps lnXa\pkcnp hym]cnph, Pohs amKnemWv. "CXm Cp Rm \ns apn Poh\pw \abpw acWhpw Xnabpw hncnpp."(\nb 30,15). XncsSpp \SmsX Bpw Hgnpamdm\mhn. ssZhns hN\w kPohhpw DuPkzehpw BWv. CcpXehmfns\m aqtbdnbXpw tNX\bnepw BXvamhnepw kn_ԧfnepw abnepw XpfpIbdn lrZbns hnNmcsfbpw \ntbmKsfbpw hnthNnpXpamWv ( sl{_m 4,12).

hnipenJnX {]t_m[\n\pw imk\n\pw sXpXncpen\pw \oXnbnep ]cnioe\n\pw D]Icnpp. CXphgn ssZh`\mb a\pjy ]qWX ssIhcnpIbpw Fm \ {]hrnIfpw sNpXn\p ]cym]vX\mhpIbpw sNpp ( 2 Xntam 3, 1617). almb Cu ]qWXbntepw \abntepap Blzm\amWv ss__nfn a\v{Zambn [z\npXv. AXv Pohs, karamb Pohs, hmKvZm\amWv. a\pjycminbpsS apn Hcp ]pXnb BImihpw ]pXnb `qanbpw AXp hnSpp.

 
     
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